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more alternative energy projects online each year. e biggest achievement in this area is the DoN's increased use of solar power. At the end of 2015, the DoN's Renewable Energy Program Office had pro- cured over 1 gigawatt of renewable power. Current- ly, 150 MW of renewable capacity is online, another 551 MW is under contract, and more than 400 MW is in procurement. When fully operational, those solar power plants will produce half the power used at DoN installations. One of the smaller and earlier successes was the installation of photovoltaic panels on a 9270 square foot roof at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) in Yuma, Ariz. e Building-Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) roof is evenly split between PV panels and a PVC membrane. is integrated approach was expected to produce energy savings by reduc- ing the cooling load on the building while also producing renewable energy. Installation of the roof was completed by the Naval Facilities Engineering Command's Engineering Service Center (NAVFAC ESC) in 2009; they collaborated with the Depart- ment of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley Nation- al Lab to evaluate the roof 's performance. Berkeley Lab provided Navy magazine with data showing that the solar absorbtance of the roof decreased from 0.75 to 0.38, lowering the average daily roof temperature by about 5 degrees Celsius. More importantly, daily PV energy production was about 25 percent of the building's electrical energy use during the summer. At the other end of the scale is the mas- sive solar farm being constructed by Sempra U.S. Gas & Power in the Arizona desert that will generate one-third of the electricity needed to power 14 military installations in California. The 210MW facility is one of the largest photovoltaic farms in the country and represents the largest purchase of renew- able energy by a federal entity. According to Sempra, the facility will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by approximately 321,000 tons each year. The Navy isn't relying exclusively on solar to meet its need for alternative energy ashore, however. In Naval District Washing- ton (NDW), Washington Energy Supervisor Bob Kelly told the Navy News Service, "Today we are investigating many different avenues for energy, such as Combined Heat and Power (CHP), fuel cells, solar applications, and wind energy..." The Navy also considers geothermal options, biogenic or waste-produced energy, and marine options, such as wave, tidal, or ocean thermal technolo- gies. Diversifying energy sources improves energy security and helps maintain mission readiness. To secure the funding to implement these op- tions, federal agencies like the DoN can use Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) and Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) to make ener- gy-saving improvements at federal facilities with U.S. NAVY 28 Navy | Winter 2017

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