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U.S. NAVY 29 Association of the United States Navy no up-front capital costs. At press time, the DoN expected to exceed $600 million in ESPCs by the end of 2016 and had nearly $1 billion more in the pipeline. Increase Alternative Energy Use DoN-Wide GOAL 5: "By 2020, 50 percent of total DoN energy consumption will come from alternative sources." STATUS: In progress and potentially achievable. In some ways this goal encompasses all the others, in that they all reduce consumption of traditional energy sources and increase reliance on alternative ones. is is a monumental undertaking, requiring a cultural shi in traditional attitudes toward energy consumption – but across the world, Sailors have enthusiastically made hundreds of changes large and small. As the SECNAV encouraged the Fleet back in 2009 to search for "the next big thing," he acknowledged that progress would come mostly from the accretion of benefits from many small changes, as indeed it has. In 2009, when the goals were originally an- nounced, the Navy used 29.5 million barrels of oil each day. In fiscal year 2015, the most recent year for which figures are available, the Navy's consumption was down to 28.5M barrels of oil per day. While that may not sound significant, saving a million barrels of oil per day adds up to saving 365 million barrels of oil a year, which saves the Navy – and the coun- try – money, but also reduces the time necessary to transport and protect that fuel in vulnerable fuel convoys and at sea. All these incremental changes have amounted to significant reductions in energy use, petroleum consumed, and pollution emitted, not to mention billions of dollars saved. As more alternative ener- gy projects are completed and brought online, that progress will continue to increase. Whether DoN will meet the other goals by 2020 remains to be seen, but the progress made has already changed the Navy for years to come. n Diana B. West is a freelance writer based in Arlington, Virginia. • All Navy and Marine Corps platforms are now certified to operate on a 50-50 blend of drop-in alternative fuels and traditional petroleum. • An EA-18G Growler fighter jet complet- ed a series of test flghts last September as part of the process for certifying Navy and Marine Corps aircraft on a 100 per- cent non-petroleum based fuel. • A Self Defense Test Ship (ex-USS Paul F. Foster) completed a cruise last May as part of the final phase certification for a 100% non-petroleum based fuel. • Expeditionary forces at forward oper- ating bases (ExFOBS) are employing energy efficient systems and renewable energy capacity to enhance their resilien- cy and reduce the number of vulnerable fuel convoys. • Navy and Marine Corps installations are using third-party financing to increase renewable power capacity and incorporate more efficient battery storage and demand response technology. DoN Milestones In addition to the progress made through the initiatives and programs described in this article, SECNAV's statement to Navy listed a few other milestones DoN has reached: