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17 Association of the United States Navy the guts of a submarine or a surface ship and installing infrastructure. at's hard. If I can do it on one ship, does that have an impact to the war fight? e answer may be no. If I can do it on 20 ships and bring it in the form of soware, maybe that's a better approach. at's the thing we ought to focus on, then. ere's a speed element and there's a capacity element, too. And then how mature is that technology? What complexity are we imposing on the user by bringing that into the mix of the things that they have to think about and go do? It all adds together and that's no simple answer to that one. We just make those hard choices. What role do artificial intelligence and augmented reality play in current research and development initiatives? ey play quite a bit. And what I mean by that is this is an area where we in the Navy and in the Marine Corps see great opportunity. We have to balance that oppor- tunity with the realities of the application of things like artificial intelligence to our mission set. It may be one thing to have a chess game going on and have a machine that's learned how to play chess because all the moves in a chess game can be mapped out. Every move, and every subsequent move until the end of the game, no matter what move you make, are mappable. at kind of machine learning doesn't apply to our environment. We face some unique challenges. When you think about how we are going to use these types of scientific disciplines and discoveries, and subsequent technologies, we have a unique environment in which to apply them in that the adversary will get a vote. And we don't know what the end of that partic- ular contest always looks like, because there's an infinite number of choices the adversary can make and then you're reaction to that, also infinite. So we can't map that one out. e environment that we operate in is typically imperfect and not full data sets. at's also challenging. e data that we might be using to inform this machine- learned position that we may take or may help us make a decision on, that data may be suspect. It may be under attack by an adversary. at's all puts some huge chal- lenges on this. We are very clear-eyed about watching where this is going in commercial applications, understanding how we can leverage that appropriately. And then also dedi- cating our resources toward those areas that are Navy and Marine Corps unique and that only we're going to solve. We're very well-connected with the scientists that are doing that work across both our academic institu- tions and the commercial space. As we see opportunity, we look to leverage it and jump in and take it. How does the Navy stack up against its adversaries when it comes to the technological edge needed to maintain maritime superiority? We are today and look to remain the greatest navy in the world. We have an edge today in just about every arena. Are we happy with the margin that we have? No, we are not. Are we happy with the capacity that we can generate each and every day? No, we're not. Are we happy with the way that our platforms are able to be networked together and distributed? No, we're not. ere's a lot of work for us to do to ensure that whatever margin we have is enough to deter an adversary from ever attempting to challenge the superiority that we have in the maritime domain. Based on the findings of the Comprehensive Review of Surface Force Incidents completed in late October, do you see potential for partnerships with industry to incorporate merchant shipping technologies into the fleet? ere certainly are. ere's quite a bit of opportunity there. e unique situation in which we operate our warships is a bit different, but there's certainly some good practices and potentially good technologies that could be leveraged or brought in whole cloth and put into our bridge and control room teams. What role could or would you like AUSN and other military and veterans service organizations to play in achieving the goals set forth in the framework? I think the most important thing that you could help us do is get the word out. It's not lost on us folks in uniform that, over time, there becomes less and less of a connec- tion to why we have a navy and, as a maritime nation, how important the Navy is to the future of America. e more you can get the word out about why naval power matters to America and our allies and partners, that's very useful for us. e more that Americans, generally, understand about where all the commerce moves — it moves on the blue part of the globe, it moves on the oceans — that only happens because your United States Navy is out there defending those global commons and allowing that free flow of trade. at economic engine is what really generates American power. Without it, we're less of a nation, frankly. Helping folks understand that critical piece about the role the Navy serves in that and many other areas, that's pretty useful. n

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